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Autism, Denmark and again no link with vaccines.

25 Aug

For a while now, I’ve been hoping that someone would publish data on the current state autism prevalence by birth year in Denmark. Denmark has been used for epidemiological studies for autism since their is a national database for health care. Thus, one can obtain a count of all people in Denmark who have been diagnosed with autism. Which is not the same thing as saying they have a count of all people in the country who are autistic. One can be autistic and not be diagnosed, as we will see.

A recent study using the Danish database is Recurrence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Full- and Half-Siblings and Trends Over Time: A Population-Based Cohort Study. It’s an interesting study and I feel somewhat guilty for pulling the time-trend data out for my own discussion. In short, the study found that if a family has one child who is autistic, the chance for a subsequent child to be autistic is about 7 times higher than for families without an autistic child. This is fairly consistent with many other sibling studies over the years, but much lower than found in the recent baby siblings study out of the MIND Institute. That might be due to the active surveillance used by the team at MIND. I.e. they were actively monitoring and testing baby siblings.

Much more, they conclude:

Although the results from our comparison of recurrence in full- and half-siblings support the role of genetics in ASDs, the significant recurrence in maternal half-siblings may support the idea of a contributing role of factors associated with pregnancy and the maternal intrauterine environment. Finally, the lack of a time trend in the relative recurrence risk in our data suggests that the likely combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the risk for ASD recurrence in siblings or that the risk for recurrence because of such factors has not been affected by the rise in the ASD prevalence.

Very interesting–whatever is behind the higher prevalence among younger siblings, it seems to be the same today as 30 years ago.

What’s the overall prevalence of autism in Denmark according to this study? For childhood autism, they report 0.3%. For all ASD’s, 1.2%.

Autism, we are told by those promoting the autism/vaccine link, is unmistakable. Each autism prevalence report is not an estimate, but an accurate count of every autsitic because there is no way to miss an autistic. Back in the day, Rick Rollens was a constant fixture in the news on autism. He was a strong proponent of the idea that one could not miss autism:

WATSON:
Like many parents, Rick is convinced that Russell was damaged by a series of vaccinations. He strongly rejects the idea that the epidemic of autism can be entirely explained by poor diagnosis in the past because numbers have rose over the last few years.

ROLLENS:
Missing child with autism is like missing a train wreck. For us now to now think that somehow we have better identified a child who can’t talk, who has repetitive behaviour. Who makes no eye contact. Who is self- involved and in many cases self-abusive just defies logic.

Mr. Rollens was wrong on two counts (leaving aside his inflammatory and derogatory language). First, autism is not just the child who can not talk, self-involved and self-abusive. Second, yes, a lot of autistics have been missed. We’ve seen that time and time again. Look at the same population at different times and the later study will have found more autistics. An this goes for autistics with intellectual disability, as shown in the recent UCLA/Utah autism followup: “Today’s diagnostic criteria applied to participants ascertained in the 1980s identified more cases of autism with intellectual disability. ”

But, what about Denmark? A study from 10 years ago looked at autism incidence following the removal of thimerosal in Denmark in 1992. Thimerosal and the occurrence of autism: negative ecological evidence from Danish population-based data

In that study they found 956 children born in their study period who were diagnosed with autism by 2000:

A total of 956 children with a male to female ratio of 3.5:1 had been diagnosed with autism during the period 1971–2000.

The current Denmark study included individuals diagnosed until the end of 2010. I.e. there were 10 more years of followup. In those 10 years a lot more people were diagnosed. Where there were 956 diagnosed with autism by 2000 (for birth years 1971 to 2000), 2321 were diagnosed by 2010. That’s an increase of 240%. And the new study focused on birth years 1980 to 1999. I.e. the entire 1970’s birth cohort is not included in this count, and they still found over twice as many autistics. Where were they in 2000, when the previous study was performed? Living in Denmark, not identified as autistic.

There are a few factors which are likely behind this increase, but here we have a great example of “increased awareness” affecting autism prevalence.

And, those numbers were for childhood autism. For ASD, the increase is even larger. 10,377 Danes had an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (for birth years 1980-1999) in the new study (the previous study included none). That’s a whopping 1080% increase. Again, there are a few reasons for this (including the increased awareness above), but here’s what “expanding the definition” does to autism.

Those increases would be an “epidemic” to some if it weren’t for the fact that those autistic Danes were there all along. They just weren’t diagnosed in 2000.

For many years, groups touting the idea that vaccines cause autism have pointed to Denmark as part of their argument. Denmark uses fewer vaccines than the U.S.. Generation Rescue used to have this on their website discussion of vaccines:

Comment: Denmark is a first world country based in Western Europe. Their schedule appears far more reasonable than ours. They have also been reported to have a much lower rate of autism than the U.S. Do they know something we don’t?

What was that Danish vaccine schedule that Generation Rescue recommended?

DTaP at 3, 5 and 12 months
Hib at 3, 5 and 12 months
IPV at 3, 5 and 12 months, plus 5 years
MMR at 15 months and 12 years

No mercury (Denmark phased that out in 1992). No birth dose of Hepatitis B. Fewer vaccines overall than in the U.S.. And the same autism prevalence of about 1%.

If you dive into more details, it gets even worse for the vaccines and/or thimerosal cause autism argument. Let’s look at the prevalence as a function of birth year for childhood autism and ASD from the recent study:

AutismPrevalenceDenmark

Consider this statement from a previous study:

This means that children who followed the full vaccination program during the period 1961–1970 had received a total of 400 g of thimerosal or 200 g of ethyl mercury by the age of 15 months and during the period 1970–1992 they had received a total of 250 g of thimerosal or 125 g of ethyl mercury at 10 months of age. In March 1992 the last batch of thimerosalcontaining vaccine was released and distributed from Statens Serum Institut in Denmark.

The thimerosal exposure was higher prior to 1992 than after. But the prevalence of both childhood autism and ASD is higher after the removal of thimerosal. This is the same result as shown in the 2003 study. The number of vaccines seems to be constant over this time period, so number of vaccines/aluminum/too-many-too-soon or other arguments don’t work either.

How about taking just a single year. The prevalence for ASD in 1996-97 was 1.4%. What is the autism prevalence in the U.S. for that year? To answer accurately, I’d contend we need a count today, not an old one. But people promoting the idea that vaccines cause autism take the CDC reports as absolute measures of autism, comparing each report and telling us all about the epidemic. So, let’s take the CDC number for kids born in 1994: 0.8%. That study was reported in 2009.

So, we have 1.4% in Denmark and 0.8%, nearly half the Danish prevalence, in the U.S.. Denmark had no thimerosal, no Hepatitis B shot (birth or otherwise), fewer vaccines and less aluminum exposure. And much higher reported autism prevalence.

Oddly enough, even though there have been many prevalence studies out of Denmark, Tomljenovic and Shaw didn’t include Denmark in their study “Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?” My guess is that Denmark didn’t fit their conclusion then, and, like Iceland, would make their analysis fall apart now. It is even more odd that Tomljenovic and Shaw didn’t use Denmark as Denmark was used in a faux-study put out by Generation Rescue. In AUTISM AND VACCINES AROUND THE WORLD: Vaccine Schedules, Autism Rates, and Under 5 Mortality Someone at Generation Rescue made the first attempt at the sleight of hand of comparing the autism prevalence in various countries vs their vaccine schedules. At that time, 2009, Generation Rescue claimed that the autism prevalence in Denmark was 1 in 2,200, misrepresenting the 2003 study discussed here. The raw prevalence in this 2008 study was 0.65% or about 1 in 153. That value didn’t fit the thesis that the Generation Rescue author wanted to convey.

One argument found on the internet is that the 2003 Denmark paper fudged the results by clipping the last years off the data presented. An email involving people involved in the study is quoted as saying, “But the incidence and prevalence are still decreasing in 2001“. Oh, my, we are told, the autism prevalence and incidence actually went down after the removal of thimerosal!

But, it didn’t. The prevalence of childhood autism (basically what was studied in the 2003 paper) in Denmark is flat from birth cohorts 1996-2004. Flat. The prevalence of ASD’s do see a decline. That must be it! Evidence that thimerosal was causing autism in Denmark! But it isn’t. The prevalence of ASD in 2003-04 is the same as that in 1990-91, before thimerosal was removed. Why does the ASD prevalence go down? We can’t say for sure, but my strong suspicion is that it’s the same reason why the authors in 2003 were seeing a decrease: too few years of follow up. Autistic kids are typically diagnosed earlier than those with other ASD’s, but the average age was about 5 in Denmark in 2003 (as I recall). ASD kids can have an average age of diagnosis of 8. Recall that the recently released study followed kids up to the end of 2010. It’s no surprise to me that the estimated prevalence for ASD kids born in 2002 is lower than that for kids born in 2000 in this study. And this is consistent with the flat prevalence for kids with childhood autism diagnoses, as they are typically diagnosed earlier and 8-9 years would be enough to find the majority of the autistics in that population.

What about the idea that there’s a “changepoint” in the autism prevalence in Denmark and California pointing to some event in the late 1980s that’s contributing to autism prevalence? For one thing, the present study notes that the recurrence risk doesn’t change with time, so that’s good evidence against such an idea. There is no changepoint in the California data in the 1980’s, as it is exponential and fitting it to two straight lines is just a mistake. What about the prevalence data just released? The data are not finely spaced in birth years, in my opinion, to give a good idea of any “changepoints” in the 1980’s. But there is a changepoint of sorts in the childhood autism data in the 1990’s. The data plateaus at about 1996. But, as already noted, this doesn’t coincide with anything related to vaccines. The ASD prevalence appears to peak at about 1994, but, again, this doesn’t coincide with vaccine events and, I suspect, results largely from lack of follow up for the kids in the later birth years.

How about the MMR vaccine? MMR uptake for young children (MMR1) was basically flat from 1987-1997. Uptake rose somewhat after that. So, during the period that the estimated prevalence was increasing, MMR uptake was basically flat. During the time that the estimated prevalence was either flat (childhood autism) or decreasing (ASD’s), the MMR uptake was increasing. So if we were to play the “correlation equals causation” game, MMR prevents autism. (two notes, preventing rubella infections most likely does prevent some autism and the link above shows a nice example of rubella infections going down after MMR was introduced in 1987. The two points are not linked because most women in Denmark who were infected with rubella before 18 weeks gestation chose abortion, resulting in a low congenital rubella syndrome prevalence).

How about the “fetal cells in vaccines cause autism” argument? It’s one without biological plausibility, but then so was the thimerosal idea. I’d be interested in seeing how the vaccines were produced in Denmark in the 1990’s, but at present, the MMR vaccine there is developed using chicken eggs, not fetal cell lines. And they don’t routinely vaccinate against chickenpox, another vaccine in the U.S. using fetal cell lines. It looks like at least as far back as 1999 they were using egg-based vaccine production for MMR.

So, it appears we have a country with no vaccines grown in fetal cell lines with an autism prevalence as high or higher than that in the U.S.. In other words, the “vaccines from fetal cell lines caused the ‘autism epidemic’ theory” also appears to be debunked by the Denmark data.

In case you are looking for correlations with the vaccine program, here’s the history in Denmark.

So, how about the rise in estimated prevalence in the 1980’s. Is it “real”, as in does it represent an actual increase in the fraction of autistics in the population? It’s a good question and one which could be answered by performing a real study of autism prevalence in adults. The sort of study I and others have called for in the U.S., but that most autism-parent advocacy groups have refused to support. Such a study would not only answer the question of the prevalence, but it would give us valuable data on what has led to success and failure among the autistic adult population.

For those promoting the idea that environmental mercury emissions are a factor in the increase of autism rates, if you have data for Denmark, I’d love to see it. In the U.S., environmental mercury emissions dropped by over 50% in the 1990’s.

Lastly, let’s discuss a comment statement one will read or hear. It goes something like “the autism prevalence was 1 in 10,000 in 1980 and it’s 1 in 1,000 today”. This involves a number of sleights of hand. First, the autism prevalence wasn’t 1 in 10,000 in 1980. It was a few in 10,000 (Wing and Gould reported about 5/10,000). Doesn’t sound like a big deal, but when people start taking ratios (it went up a gazillion percent) a factor of 2 or 3 in the denominator makes a difference. Second, this was the estimated prevalence based on the number of autistics diagnosed at the time. As shown above, the childhood autism prevalence estimate for Denmark in the 1980’s increased by 240% in the past decade. This was not a real increase, but better identification. Third, the comparison is between autism (childhood autism, DSM-III autism or some other restrictive definition) vs. autism spectrum disorders. Also shown above was that the prevalence of ASD’s in the 1980’s increased by a factor of 10, increasing only in the past 10 years.

A factor of 10 in the numerator, a factor of 3 or 4 in the denominator and pretty soon you are talking about a big part of the increases observed.

In the end, none of the above arguments are that new. Or, to put it better, none of the vaccines-cause-autism arguments had much real support. The mercury idea has lost much of the support it had 10 years ago in the parent community, but it persists. The aluminum in vaccines idea has risen to try to take the place of the mercury hypothesis, but it is based on the exact same smoke and mirrors. The idea that the increase in autism is due to the MMR has been scientifically dead for years. And, yet, these ideas persist. And they cause harm, both to the community at large and to the autism community.


Matt Carey

The Amish may not be a great population for a vaccinated/unvaccinated study

10 Aug

The recent attempt to legislate brought back the subject of the Amish, vaccination and autism. It’s an old idea, made popular by a journalist whose work was, shall we say, less than complete.

House Resolution 1757 (still stuck in committee) states:

” Target Populations- The Secretary shall seek to include in the study under this section populations in the United States that have traditionally remained unvaccinated for religious or other reasons, which populations may include Old Order Amish…”

Whenever the Amish are brought forward as a population for vaccinated/unvaccinated studies, people present many reasons why such an idea lacks rigor.

1) The Amish do vaccinate. They have no prohibition against vaccination. (i.e. the statement that “because the Amish have a religious exemption from vaccination” is incorrect).

2) “The” Amish is a bit of a misnomer. Amish is more of a plural, as in a group of basically island populations which have been developing somewhat independently genetically for a few hundred years.

3) Talking about studying the Amish as though one has the right to just force them to submit is very disrespectful. And a bad assumption. One does not tell a community that they have to be study subjects. One asks. The Amish may very well not want the entire population screened for autism.

There are more arguments. Valid arguments. But without some cold, hard, numbers the response that usually comes up is, “Ah, you are afraid of what we will find!”

No, if one is going to do a study, one should be rigorous. One should get as close to the correct answer as possible. Studying the Amish as an “unvaccinated” population with “no” (or little) autistic subpopulation is to start out with little chance for success.

But how about some cold, hard numbers (I mean, beside from the fact that the Amish vaccinate and there are autistic Amish).

Here’s a talk presented this summer by the DDC Clinic in Ohio. This clinic is following the model of the cleverly hidden “Clinic For Special Children” that a certain journalist failed to contact before publishing his conclusions. In the description of the Clinic you will find:

A 501(c) (3) non-profit organization located in
Middlefield of Ohio, Geauga Amish settlement
• Total population ~95,000, Amish ~14,000 (15%)
• 50% of developmental disabilities are from Amish
• One hour (but a world) away from world class healthcare

Yes, they are 15% of the local population but account for about 50% of the developmentally disabled population for their community.

In other words, the prevalence of developmental disability is more than five times that of the general population.

Do you still want to compare this population for long term health outcomes and vaccination status? Do you want to say, “hey, here’s a population that doesn’t vaccinate and they have more developmental disability than the rest of the population?”

That’s what people have been pointing out for years in stating that genetically the Amish are somewhat distinct from the rest of the U.S. population. The proposed study will run into big problems.

Why does the Clinic for Special Children (and similar clinics) exist? They aren’t just there because the Amish are likely to be underserved in general since they lack insurance (which, I’ve been told, is something the Amish avoid). The Clinic’s mission statement is:

The Clinic for Special Children was established in 1989 as a non-profit medical service for Amish and Mennonite children with genetic disorders. The Clinic serves children by translating advances in genetics into timely diagnoses and accessible, comprehensive medical care, and by developing better understanding of heritable diseases.

Again, they are a small, island-like population. Many genetic conditions are more common in their communities. Many are metabolic conditions. (Dr. Morton’s talk at the conference was “Approach to Care for Patients with Metabolic Disorders”). Conditions which put people at greater risk of harm from infections, hence the reason that people have been working to increase vaccine uptake in the Amish over the past 3 decades.

The Clinic for Special Children has been an example of how focusing on genetic conditions can have major impacts on the well being of those with the conditions. Over the past 30 years, the Clinic has pioneered efforts which have resulted in better health and longer lives for their patients. Too often we hear in the autism communities that genetic conditions mean “no hope”.

I’ll leave you with the words of Dr. Holmes Morton of the Clinic for Special Children. Words from the Clinic’s main page:

“Special children are not just interesting medical problems, subjects of grants and research. Nor should they be called burdens to their families and communities. They are children who need our help, and if we allow them to, they will teach us compassion. They are children who need our help, and if we allow them to, they will teach us love. If we come to know these children as we should, they will make us better scientists, better physicians, and thoughtful people.”


By Matt Carey

IMFAR program is now online

4 Apr

IMFAR, the International Meeting for Autism Research, is held in the spring of each year. Which makes me wonder, did the people who organized this have to go through IEP meetings? I ask because IEP meetings are often are held at the end of the school year and include a lot of evaluations, making it difficult for a parent to attend a Spring research meeting? It isn’t a parent conference, so this is really just an observation.

IMFAR is the top science conference for autism. It is big and it is where a lot of new work is presented. The meeting will be held in May and the abstracts will be available May 1st. But the program, meaning the titles of the talks, are available now. I’ve just done a little browsing and found some talks which are likely to spark conversations. These may not be the talks which reflect the research most likely to impact the lives of autistics and the broader autism communities, but I suspect these will be interesting to the online parent community. For example, one doesn’t need the abstract to get the conclusion of this talk: No Differences in Early Immunization Rates Among Children with Typical Development and Autism Spectrum Disorders. This paper is by the U.C. Davis MIND Institute, which carries a lot of weight with the groups who promote the vaccine-induced autism-epidemic idea, so perhaps this will help to move the discussion forward from the vaccine-focus of the past decade. One can hope.

On the first day, a keynote talk is being held: How Severe Is Autism – Really?

This session reviews the coexisting problems that usually exist in individuals with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. It concludes on the note that it is possibly these associated problems and disorders that often drive the poor outcome that so many people now almost take for granted will be a consequence of autism in the longer term perspective. Language disorders, intellectual developmental disorders, non-verbal learning disability, epilepsy, medical disorders such as tuberous sclerosis and fragile X syndrome, ADHD, and depression are often the “real” cause of negative outcome in autism. Many people in the general population have marked autistic features without major “lifetime impairment”. The focus on *autism only* in early intervention programs is most likely a mistake.

And you probably thought when I said there would be talks which would likely “spark conversations” online, I was just talking epidemiology and etiology.

A recent paper proposed a correlation between a mother’s childhood history of abuse and autism risk in her children. (Emily Willingham discusses this study at Forbes). It appears the same team has a poster at IMFAR: Maternal Exposure to Childhood Abuse Is Associated with Elevated Risk of Autism. A big open question from that work is this: are autistics more likely to be abused as children? Which could make the link heritable. Which makes it interesting that this poster is in the same session at IMFAR:Epidemiology of Neglect and Maltreatment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

There is an entire session on the ethical questions posed by biomarker research.

While the development of a blood biomarker as a screening or diagnostic tool for autism spectrum disorders is of great interest to the scientific and medical communities, it is also attracting intense scrutiny from other stakeholders including people with autism, ethicists, and parents. This symposium will therefore address the scientific, ethical and social challenges associated with the development of biomarkers for autism, and provide an update on the current status of research in this field. We will describe how the heterogeneity of autism, gender bias, and potential comorbidities, could derail the promise of identifying objective, reliable, and universally accepted biomarkers. We will consider the ethical and social issues relating to the development of biomarkers for autism in order to identify and describe the implications for the ‘difference versus disability’ debate; as well as consider possible wider tensions of biomarker research in relation to issues such as pre-natal screening and reproductive choice, and identity and inclusion for individuals on the autistic spectrum. Finally, we will summarize the most promising research on blood biomarkers for autism, describing the required steps to take a putative biomarker from the ‘bench to the bedside’. This educational symposium brings together researchers from scientific, ethical and psychological disciplines to provide a unique perspective on the utility of biomarkers for ascertaining autism risk, aiding in diagnosis and identifying therapeutic targets, all within the framework of the relevant ethical and social considerations.

Here’s the sort of research I wish were the sort to “spark conversations”. Adaptive Intervention For Communication In Minimally Verbal School Aged Children. That is a study I really want to see. Likewise, I am pleased to see an entire session on Young Children, Schools. And Adults, Lifespan, Methods. And services.

Terry Brugha, who headed up the U.K.’s adult autism prevalence studies of recent years will present: The Autism Epidemic Hypothesis: the Association of Autism With Age in the General Population.

There is a large international focus, with research from India, China, South America and other areas usually under represented in research. Another keynote talk discusses this in terms of epidemiology: The Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Toward a More Inclusive World:

We live in an era of exciting advances in our awareness and understanding of autism spectrum disorder, but also a time of enormous global imbalance. Most of what is known about the epidemiology, genetics, clinical manifestation and course, treatment, and nearly every other aspect of autism is based on research in high income countries, where fewer than 10% of births occur and less than 20% of the population lives globally. This talk will describe opportunities to expand the horizons of autism epidemiology and service delivery to include the 80 to 90% of affected individuals and families who live in low and middle income countries, as well as those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged and living in high income countries. It will also describe some of the cultural and financial barriers to progress, and make a case for incorporating concepts of the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Disability and Functioning into the classification and epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder, with the ultimate goals to include not only primary prevention of autism but also enhancement of participation and social inclusion of people with autism spectrum disorder.

One session is: 30-Year Follow-Up of Autism in Adulthood.

The population of adults with ASD is increasing rapidly, entering systems of healthcare and adult support that are already at capacity. Understanding the nature of ASD in adults, their unique needs, and availability of service options, is essential for resource planning and service development. Investigations into this period of life are increasing, but much remains unknown. This study examines adult outcomes for a large, population-based sample of adults identified as children in the 1980’s. Outcomes of interest concern diagnostic presentation, functional abilities, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, social functioning, independence, service use, and access to services. Overall, outcomes for this sample were consistent with what has been reported for similar samples, yet there were notable differences in factors contributing to outcomes compared to what has been reported for other groups. Our findings support the importance of a range of accessible healthcare and support service options for adults with ASD. Detailed analyses are underway to investigate patterns leading to specific outcomes for subgroups of the population of adults with ASD.

I would have written that abstract a bit differently, but I am very appreciative that this session is being held.

Two years ago, I was able to attend IMFAR with the help of an Autism Science Foundation grant. I really wish I was able to attend this one. There looks to be a great deal of interesting research being discussed.


By Matt Carey

Autism Rate 2%, what now?

25 Mar

Autism prevalence data are always news makers. Although, maybe it’s just me, but the announcement of a new autism prevalence estimate for the U.S. didn’t seem to be as big a news story as previous reports. That said, so much of the discussion around prevalence estimates centers on “what does this tell us about the past” or “what about the future”.

“What does this tell us about the past” is the discussion around “was there/is there an epidemic (usually with an explicit or implicit reference to vaccines)”. “What about the future” is usually a discussion focused on the economic burden and what happens in we project the trends out to the future.

But what about right now? We have roughly 2% of our school age children in the U.S. who are autistic. Disabled to various degrees. Probably a like number of adults as well. For those who don’t accept this notion, keep in mind that one of the major themes of the recent report was how a large fraction of autistics were identified late. They had fallen through the cracks and were possibly not receiving the supports they needed. We are talking teenagers, not just young children. It isn’t that great a leap to say that we there is a large population of unidentified autistic adults.

Most news stories and most discussion will focus on one number: 2%. I would argue, and will argue, that a factor of at least equal importance is not how many autistics there are, but how diverse this population is and how little is really known.

There is no biological test for autism. As this study and many others have shown, the understanding of what autism is, even behaviorally, is still evolving. And this is important whether you take a medical model of autism or a disability model or some combination of the two.

We (a society of autistic and non-autistic people) need to give autistics the tools and supports needed to succeed in this world, with various definitions of success. And we can’t do that if we don’t understand what is needed. 2% is a number that can grab people’s attention. And that includes politicians. But to me, the bigger issue is the breadth of the spectrum. The diversity of the autistic population. Consider the report again. There are so many ways to look at the data, but let me pick some facts to highlight. The prevalence estimate for 10-13 year olds was about 2.4%. Of this, roughly half fall into the so-called “mild” autism category. Only 5% of parents placed their child into the “severe” category. Of course, there is no real definition of mild, moderate, or severe to use for this, and parents might be biased to report milder needs, but let’s go with the structure we are given. But, in the end, 1%, 5%, 95%, is less important than the fact that there are subpopulations of autistics which needs a very different support structure than others.

Many people discussing the new prevalence values focus on the need to have the money to provide supports (be it in the home, the school or the workplace, medical or non-medical) for a wide variety of autistics. But in order to do that, we have to know what supports and tools are needed. I know this is getting repetitive, but no amount of money can give autistics, parents, teachers, caregivers and employers the tools needed if we don’t know what the appropriate tools are.

There is a broad spectrum of autism, and a broad spectrum of ages. Perhaps the most overlooked area of autism, be it research or supports and services, are the needs of adults. Many parents tend to categorize autism by IQ, with a linear spectrum with those with lower IQ’s on one side and those with higher IQ’s on the other. Even with this simple model, we have a huge matrix of needs for autistics: with age on one axis, and IQ on another. But the IQ-category idea is too simplistic. Which means, the real matrix of needs we have to understand is multidimensional.

Ask someone outside the community who has a basic understanding of the autism discussion, “what should we do for autistics?” and you are likely to get, “behavioral intervention”. OK, for some fraction of a young population, that may be a good answer. Maybe, one might argue, truly individualized education plans (IEP) will allow parents and teachers to customize supports for the needs of the autistic during school. That’s how it is supposed to work, but this process would be much more efficient if we had better recommendations for autistic students of all ages.

It is worth taking a moment here to point out that here is a point where more money directly into services is needed. Mention special education to a school administer and you are likely to hear “unfunded mandate”, “budget”, and “encroachment”. We in the U.S. have never lived up to our responsibility to support special education as promised from a federal level (federal special education support is less than 1/2 what was promised). And it isn’t like state and local governments are supporting special education to the levels needed.

But that’s just school. What about transition to adulthood? Thank god for people like Paul Shattuck who has been asking these questions, but this study only came out last year. And adulthood and autism has recently been referred to as “the great unknown” in one paper.

And medical issues? These get a lot of discussion, especially in online parent forums. Ask what medical conditions are more common in autistics and you will likely hear, “GI complaints”, “immune dysfunction”, “metabolic dysfunction”. Anyone want to venture a guess as to what are, by far, the most common comorbid conditions to autism in children? Neurological disorders and mental health conditions. Autistics are 25 times more likely to have one or both of these. And what happens in older populations? Another “great unknown”.

So, yes, 2% is big. And it’s important. And it will get people’s attention. But if we don’t know what tools or how to support any given segment of the population, it’s just saying how many people we can’t support.

Of course we need to take autism seriously. It doesn’t matter if 2%, 0.2% or 0.02% of the population are autistic, it is still important. But we need to recognize that there are whole areas of questions we haven’t even asked yet, much less found good answers for. It is hard to package this essage into a sound bite, but the focus needs to be on the breadth of the questions, not just te size of the population.


By Matt Carey

CDC-HRSA report: Changes in Prevalence of Parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder in School-aged U.S. Children: 2007 to 2011–2012

20 Mar

A new report came out today: Changes in Prevalence of Parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder in School-aged U.S. Children: 2007 to 2011–2012. I’ll come back for more detail and discussion soon, but the bottom line: the autism prevalence estimate for the US is now about 2%. 3.23% for boys.

Here is the press release for this:

CDC and HRSA issue report on changes in prevalence of parent-reported

Autism Spectrum Disorder in school-aged children

Who: CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics and the Health Resources and Services Administration

What: “Changes in Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Disorder in School-Aged Children: 2007 to 2011-2012.”

The report was co-authored by HRSA and data collection was conducted by the CDC. The data come from the National Survey of Children’s Health, a nationally representative phone survey of households with children. This survey is conducted every four years.

Main findings of the report:

· The prevalence of parent-reported ASD among children aged 6-17 years was 2 percent in 2011-2012 compared to 1.2 percent in 2007.

· The change in prevalence estimates was greatest for boys and for adolescents aged 14 to 17 years.

· Children who were first diagnosed in or after 2008 were more likely to have milder ASD than those diagnosed in or before 2007.

· Much of the increase in the prevalence estimates from 2007 to 2011-2012 for school-aged children was the result of diagnoses of children with previously unrecognized ASD.

The report is available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

For information about HRSA’s autism efforts visit http://mchb.hrsa.gov/programs/autism/index.html.

For information about CDC’s autism efforts visit http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/index.html.

As indicated above, there are clearly social factors at play involving identification of individuals previously unidentified. For example: If one looks at the prevalence estimate for 6-9 year olds in 2007, a value of 1.31% was obtained. In 2010-11, the prevalence for children born in the same years (now aged 10-13 years old) is 2.39%. In other words, children born in the years 1998-2001 saw an big increase in the estimated autism prevalence.

For the 2010-11 report, about 1/3 of the children were diagnosed after 2008. These are children 6-17 years old, so they were born in 2005 and before. About 30% of children born in 1998-2001 were diagnosed after 2008. These are children aged 7-13.

And, yes, this means that the thimerosal hypothesis, the notion that the increased exposure to thimerosal from vaccines in the 1990’s cause an autism-epidemic, is even less viable. There are obviously a number of social influences behind the increase in autism prevalence estimates in the U.S.. These could mask a “real” increase (or, interestingly, a real decrease). But had thimerosal been a primary driver of the increased prevalence, the prevalence would be dropping. The prevalence for children 6-9 years old, children born after the phase out of thimerosal, now is estimated at 1.82%.


By Matt Carey

AAP opposes worldwide ban on thimerosal

17 Dec

In a series of articles released today, the American Academy of Pediatrics outlines its opposition to a proposed UN treaty which, if approved, would ban the preservative thimerosal from vaccines worldwide. The ban is also opposed by the World Health Organization and the US Public Health Service. It is estimated that multidose vaccines with thimerosal as a preservative are used in 120 countries to immunize approximately 84 million children, saving about 1.4 million lives each year.

The AAP’s opposition reverses the professional organization’s call in 1999 for the removal of thimerosal from the US pediatric vaccine schedule. That action is frequently cited by anti-vaccine groups as evidence that health officials know that vaccines cause autism and other neurological conditions. But Dr. Louis Z. Cooper and Dr. Samuel L. Katz, co-authors of  one of today’s articles, directly take on that concern:

Had the AAP (and, we suspect, the USPHS) known what research has revealed in the intervening 14 years, it is inconceivable to us that these organizations would have made the joint statement of July 7, 1999. The World Health Organization recommendation to delete the ban on thimerosal must be heeded or it will cause tremendous damage to current programs to protect all children from death and disability caused by vaccine-preventable diseases.

The 1999 domestic ban surfaced during a Nov. 29 congressional hearing on autism, where representatives of both parties repeated long-debunked anti-vaccine talking points. Rep. John Tierney (D-MA) asked the CDC’s Dr. Colleen Boyle why thimerosal was taken out of childhood vaccines if there were no concerns about its safety. Boyle wisely agreed to get back to him with an answer. An anti-vaccine hearing is no place for reasoned discussion.

In another article, researchers Katherine King, PhD, MSc; Megan Paterson, and Shane K. Green, PhD; reaffirm that “there is no credible scientific evidence that the use of thimerosal in vaccines presents any risk to human health.” They continue:

Extensive pharmacologic and epidemiological research has shown early, theoretical concerns about links to autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders to be false. Indeed, the exculpatory strength of the data now available on thimerosal is well evidenced by recent statements from the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, US Institute of Medicine, and American Academy of Pediatrics, all of which have concluded that thimerosal exposure through vaccination is not harmful to human health.

The AAP’s latest action is a shot across the bow to anti-vaccine groups. The UN’s proposed thimerosal ban has been championed by Mark Geier, the disgraced Maryland geneticist best known for chemically castrating disabled children. Two years ago, he told a group of African delegates gathered for a session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee in Japan that thimerosal “is favored by the pharmaceutical industry because it is cheap and enables the industry to keep making vaccines in old and dirty factories.”

Geier is a regular at Jenny McCarthy’s annual anti-vaccine conference, where he receives standing ovations from anti-vaccine parents. Ten states have either revoked his medical license over the last two years, or allowed it to expire, for Geier’s ethical lapses which included lying about his qualifications risking children’s health with unproven medical treatments.


By AutismNewsBeat

Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity

28 Aug

A recent study from Sweden presents another autism prevalence estimate. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity is available online free. My analysis is on the Autism Science Foundation blog as Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity

I will point out that the methodology differs from the American prevalence estimates from the CDC. In particular, where the CDC looks at children of a given age (8 years old) in a given year, the Stockholm Youth Cohort study considers a cross section of autistics, ages 4 to 23. The prevalence, especially for autistic disorder, is relatively flat for autistics born in the 1990s, a time when there was supposedly an increase of 100’s of percent in autism prevalence. In other words, the study doesn’t support the idea of an epidemic.


By Matt Carey