Mr. Wakefield’s business plan as discussed at the GMC hearing.

13 Jan

As Kev has discussed, Mr. Wakefield has put out a press release denying all allegations about research fraud and an attempt to profit from the research he was engaging in. I had hoped to put this all behind us, but I thought for those interested, a more thorough discussion of Mr. Wakefield’s business venture might be appropriate here. I copy below a section of the GMC hearing testimony from Day 31. Mr Cengiz Altan Tarhan, who worked on the finance side of University College London and was brought in to discuss, amongst other things, Mr. Wakefield’s business venture.

Q I am going to be reverting to that role in more detail much later on in the story, but just so everyone knows that is a company that relates to technologies developed by the Medical School, is that correct?
A Not just the Medical School. It is the whole of the university. So it is University College London. The Medical School is a part of the university.

Immunospecifics is discussed below, but it went through name changes, including Carmel. I’ve wuoted a section of testimony below. Questions and answers in the hearing are italicized. The text of the documents is left normal.

The documents discussed involve the plan to spin-out a company from UCL to develop Mr. Wakefield’s invention (as put forth in his patent) into a therapy and as a vaccine replacement.

Q Sir, I am going to call this gentleman from now on in order to protect the confidentiality of the boy, his son, as “Dr 10”. Could we go, please, in volume 2, to page 756a. This is a letter that was sent to you before a meeting. It is from Dr Wakefield to you dated 26 February 1998.

“Re our meeting on Tuesday, 3 March 1997, please find enclosed two references for Alex Korda, our proposed Chairman. I have applied for references for Dr [10], our proposed CEO [Chief Executive Officer], and will pass these on as soon as these are available .

In addition, Dr Kirkpatrick from Denver, Colorado, will be giving a guest lecture on the use of Transfer Factor in the treatment of viral disease on the same Tuesday lunch time in the Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology. I realise that this may be of limited value to you other than reassuring you that Transfer Factor is a credible and rational alternative treatment for viral infections. Dr Kirkpatrick holds certain IPR [intellectual property rights] that may be relevant to our endeavours, and Alex Korda, [Dr 10] and I will be meeting with him to discuss this. I will feed back as soon as I have more information.”

Is that correct?
A Yes.

Q Would you go on to 797, please. That is a memo from you. I am told that is a document that needs to be put back into the bundle. Actually, sir, this is a tranche of documents which goes all the way from 797 to 816. Perhaps I can give them all to you at once so I do not do it piecemeal.

THE CHAIRMAN: I have 797a here.

MS SMITH: In that case you need 797 to precede it and then, after 797a, you go on with the rest of the documents, which go from 798 to 816. Could we go first of all, Mr Tarhan, to 797.
A Okay.

Q This is a memo from you and sent to Mr Dutton, Professor Zuckerman, Mr Blatch and Miss Bishop, dated 6 March 1998.

“Mr Wakefield and potential company proposal

Andy came to see me with two of his colleagues who expressed an interest in setting up a company and acquiring the patents from the School. I asked for some background papers on the two individuals. One is a XXX (10) and the other appears to be an entrepreneur with previous experience with start up companies and is prepared to raise funds for the company.

I have asked them to put forward what they saw as the business plan and way forward and will report back as soon as I have further information.”

Can we then go on to 798. This is your second memo, 6 March 1998, to the same people.

“Further to my memo of 4 March I have now received the attached document from [Dr 10] the Managing Director designate for Immunospecifics Biotechnologies Ltd.

Any comments would be appreciated.”

Attached to that, was there a business plan document?
A That is correct.

Q That starts at page 799. Can I just look in brief terms at the contents of that.

“Immunospecifics Biotechnologies Ltd is a new biotechnology venture specialising in the isolation, production licensing and marketing of a new range of immunotherapeutics, generically known as transfer factors. These compounds are a naturally occurring part of the human immune system and promote specific cell mediated immunity towards the target antigen.

The first clinical condition targeted will be measles virus induced inflammatory bowel disease. It is estimated that this disease costs the NHS about £15,600,000 per annum. The incidence of measles induced inflammatory bowel disease is increasing dramatically in Europe and the States. Immunospecifics … will undertake the start of a two year, double blind, phase 1 clinical trial into the effectiveness of measles specific transfer factor in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and an open label study into the effectiveness of the same product in ameliorating pervasive developmental disorder within 3 months of securing funding.

In parallel with the clinical trial the company will develop a clinical diagnostic for the presence of the measles virus. It is estimated that the market for this diagnostic is about £4,000,000 per annum in the UK alone. The company will also investigate the potential of transfer factors as vaccine alternatives. An animal model trial of the value of measles specific transfer factor in preventing inflammatory bowel disease will begin upon securing funding.

On completion of a successful phase 1 clinical trial the company will move towards phase 2 and phase 3 trials for the measles specific transfer factor whilst introducing new potential transfer factor therapeutics to its development portfolio. Prior to the completion of this first phase trial, the company expects to have finished the laboratory development of the clinical diagnostic, completed the open label study into pervasive developmental disorder and finished the animal study into the potential of transfer factor as a vaccine.

The company is looking to raise about £2,100,000 to undertake this development programme.”

Moving on to page 800,


[Immunospecifics] will specialise in the production, formulation and sale of a wide range of immunotherapeutics, generically known as transfer factors (TFs). [Transfer factors] are a naturally occurring component of the immune system which have been shown to confer antigen specific cell mediated immunity. This form of immunity is important in overcoming viral infectious agents. Many viral agents have the capacity to suppress the body’s cell mediated immune system (e.g. Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Overcoming this suppression through the introduction of an antigen specific cell mediated immunity promoter has enormous potential clinical significance.”

Then it sets out the history. Would you go on to page 801, the top of the page and second paragraph down,

“It is [Immunospecifics’] aim to use a high potency, standardised TF preparation in one of the first properly controlled clinical trials of these materials. The target conditions for the trials will be specific forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a condition affecting children known as pervasive developmental disorder (PPD). These trials will begin within the first three months of the company’s establishment. Whilst these trials are taking place, the company will be purifying and characterising the active compounds in the TF preparation. Once isolated and characterised, the potential for this molecule as a measles specific vaccine will be evaluated in animal model systems.”

Going on to page 802 and just past the middle of the page,


[Immunospecifics] is at present no more than a concept, but one with a unique opportunity. The strategic goal for the venture will be to achieve full regulatory approval for the use of antigen (infectious agent) specific transfer factors in a variety of clinical conditions where existing treatment regimes are either non-existent or have limited effectiveness. This strategy will permit the company to establish a clear technical and medical lead in this area with a resulting dominant market share. Paralleling the use of [transfer factors] as therapeutics will be a research programme aimed at demonstrating the value of [transfer factor] as a vaccine.

The objectives and associated tasks for the first two years to develop the concept into a full-scale venture are summarised in the following points.”

Turning back to page 801 for a moment, Mr Tarhan, and the bottom of the page, the last paragraph reads,

“It is [Immunospecifics’] aim to undertake a phase I clinical trial of a high potency measles specific transfer factor supplied by Fudenberg’s group at a very early stage in the life of the Company.”

Would you turn now to page 804 and this is still under the heading, “STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES” and to number 7 of 9,

“Establish the potential of the high specific active preparations as a potential measles vaccine

This study will be done in conjunction with ‘Immuno’ a subsidiary of Baxter Health Care, in Austria using simian model systems. The efficacy of the [transfer factor] will be assessed by its ability to prevent measles specific IBD during challenge experiments. ‘Immuno’ have agreed to undertake the preliminary work with the [Royal Free Hospital] at no cost, although Immuno’s contribution is estimated to be of the order of £100,000. If successful this concept will be developed further in collaboration with a major pharmaceutical company, such as Glaxo Wellcome’s Jenner Institute. The full relationship between ISB and Immuno needs to be resolved.”

Going on to page 805,

“Medium term objectives for the venture will be: 1) to take the purified and characterised measles specific [transfer factor] through formal product registration by undertaking phase II and phase III clinical trials; 2) establish the most appropriate route for the commercial development of the product; 3) develop the potential for use of [transfer factors] as vaccine replacements; 4) introduce new anti-infectious agents TFs to the company’s product development portfolio and take them through to formal product registration.”

6 Responses to “Mr. Wakefield’s business plan as discussed at the GMC hearing.”

  1. Sullivan January 13, 2011 at 21:21 #

    Should anyone wonder about whether Mr. Wakefield would be involved in the company:


    The four individuals involved in this venture at this early stage has been mentioned previously. [Mr 10] will be the Managing Director of the venture. It is not envisaged that Dr Fudenberg, Dr Wakefield and Professor Pounder will be full time members of the company. It is anticipated that Dr Wakefield will play a vital role as the Research Director and will be a key member of the scientific advisory panel. Dr Fudenberg will bring many years’ experience of the production and clinical application of [transfer factors] to the company. He is no longer scientifically active but his involvement will bring technical and medical credibility to the venture and he will be a key member of the scientific advisory panel. Professor Roy Pounder of the [Royal Free Hospital] will fulfil the role of clinical consultant and oversee all the clinical trials and sit on the scientific advisory board”


    “The initial equity ownership of the business will be split amongst the following individuals and organisations.

    [Mr 10]
    Dr A. Wakefield
    Dr R. Pounder
    Alex Korda
    Dr H.H. Fudenberg
    Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine”

    and it says,

    “The [Royal Free Hospital] owns the rights to certain key patents and would be heavily involved in the clinical trials of the [transfer factor] products. In exchange for an exclusive licence to the patents and use of facilities, the [Royal Free Hospital] will be offered an equity stake in the venture.

    A Charitable Trust

    The initial founders of the business have always envisaged that a proportion of any profits and capital growth achieved by the business should be used to fund research into specific conditions relating to chronic intestinal inflammation, chronic viral infections and related conditions. It is our aim that this should be through a charitable trust, who would have an initial equity stake in the business”

  2. Kev January 13, 2011 at 22:00 #

    Hugh Fudenberg eh? Amazing where these people pop up from.

  3. autiemum January 14, 2011 at 10:03 #

    All this to treat measles-specific IBD — a disease totally unproven to exist using a technology which didn’t work.

    I guess Wakefield was having these discussions with business managers at UCL who (as he says at one point) didn’t understand the science but understood the concept of making lots of money. Conmen operate on people who don’t quite understand what they are investing in but do understand that they are going to make lots of dough.

    I have previously had a lot of trouble taking the idea that Wakefield proposed an alternative vaccine using transfer factor seriously because it is such a daft idea. Now I understand how it was done — the business managers were led by the nose following the £ signs and only when the primacy of the science was re-asserted did the whole thing fall apart.

  4. sheldon101 January 14, 2011 at 18:49 #

    Wakefield was getting negative measles virus reports from Nick Chadwick. And the samples came from kid who didn’t have Crohn’s or Ulcerative Colitis (together inflammatory bowel disease). None of the kid of the 12 which were still going through the hospital had IBD. Wakefield’s 1998 has them having a minor inflammatory condition which (we will be generous and assume existed) of autistic enterocolitis.

    So what kids with actual IBD diagnoses had ever been tested for measles virus and shown genuine positive results? Chadwick and Wakefield had worked together and published papers in the area. I don’t think Chadwick discussed earlier positive results with IBD patients in his OAP testimony. Did Chadwick ever do this testing.

    Reason tells me that there had to be at least one sequenced result in an IBD patient that was positive.

    But this is Wakefield.

  5. brian January 14, 2011 at 19:18 #

    The idea for the treatment/vaccine for IBD (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) was based on Wakefield’s earlier work, which included identifying “measles virus” in gut biopsy samples using a monoclonal antibody that, it was shown by others, produced false-positive reactions by binding to a human protein as well as to measles virus. [Iizuka M et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of measles related IBD. Gut 2001;48:136-137]


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