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Apply Now for a Travel Grant to IMFAR

18 Jan

IMFAR, the International Meeting for Autism Research is approaching and that means that it is time for the Autism Science Foundation’s Travel Grants. These are grants for stakeholders which reimburse up to $1,000 of expenses to attend IMFAR.

I was an ASF Travel Grant recipient last year. It was a great experience. A very busy experience, but a great opportunity to meet a number of researchers and see talks on the latest research.

Here is the email announcement from the ASF:

Apply Now for a Travel Grant to the International Meeting for Autism Research

The Autism Science Foundation announced today that it is offering a limited number of grants to parents of children with autism, individuals with autism, special education teachers, and other stakeholders to attend the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR). This year the conference will be held in Toronto, Canada from May 17-19.

The awards will reimburse up to $1,000 of actual expenses and can be used to cover registration, travel, accommodations, meals and other directly related expenses, including childcare or special accommodations to enable individuals with autism to participate.

“We are thrilled to be able to offer this program for the third year in a row and to give back to the autism stakeholder community in a research-focused way,” said Alison Singer, president of the Autism Science Foundation.

“These scholarships are a wonderful opportunity to bring more stakeholders to IMFAR and enhance discussion and interactions among all key constituencies,” said Dr. Helen Tager-Flusberg, President of INSAR and Professor of Psychology, Anatomy & Neurobiology and Pediatrics, Boston University.

To apply:

Open to all autism stakeholders: individuals with autism, parents of children with autism, special education teachers, graduate and undergraduate students, journalists, scientists, and others.
Grants can be awarded to US citizens only.
Applicants should send a letter to grants@autismsciencefoundation.org describing why they want to attend IMFAR and explaining how they would share what they learned with the broader autism community.
Letters should be sent as Microsoft Word attachments of no more than 2 pages, 12-point type, “Arial” font, with standard margins.
In the email subject line please write: IMFAR Grant.
Letters must be received by February 29, 2012.

Additional application information is available at http://www.autismsciencefoundation.org/what-we-fund/apply-for-IMFAR-travel-grant.

Grant recipients will be announced in March.

My IMFAR poster

1 Jun

I was fortunate enough to attend IMFAR this year on an Autism Science Foundation stakeholder travel grant. This is the second year of the program, and I hope that they continue it. Given that, I thought it would be valuable to write about my day-to-day experiences: Looking back at IMFAR from an ASF Stakeholder Travel Grant Awardee

I have to admit, my experiences were probably out of the ordinary for a stakeholder travel grantee. I hope that many or even most will be people who are not familiar with scientific conferences (I have attended several over the past 20 years). I do hope that more bloggers attend and report back, though, so experiences with the press conference could be of value.

One aspect of my IMFAR visit that I didn’t discuss in detail on the ASF blog was that of presenting a poster. My topic was:

Parent Reported Status and Expectations for Their Autistic Student Children:
An Analysis of the 2007 National Household Education Survey

Here’s the abstract:

Background: National surveys provide a good source of information on autistic populations within the United States. The 2007 National Survey for Child Health was used to estimate autism prevalence (Kogan 2009), as well as to make comparisons of such family factors as the divorce rate (Freedman 2010). A similar survey, the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), is an opportunity to explore comparisons between parent-reported factors involving the lives and education of autistic and non-autistic students.
Objectives:

1. Compare educational placements and percieved educational abilities between children with (a) parent-reported autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and (b) children in the general population.

2. Explore parent expectations for the future of their ASD student.

Methods: Data used for this study were taken from the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES 2007). NHES had 10,682 total respondents, representing students ages 3 to 20 years. 127 parents identified their child as having autism and an additional 37 identified their child as having pervasive developmental disorder.

Parent responses for this group (164 total, or about 1 in 65) were compared to those of the parent responses within the general survey population.

Results: 75% of students with parent-reported ASD have an Individualized Education Plan. Parents reported that their ASD students are more likely to have repeated a grade (23% ASD vs. 9% without) or be home schooled (5.5% vs. 2.9%) or be in a program that does not assign letter grades (37% vs. 22%). ASD students were reported as less likely to be in private school (9.6% vs. 13.4%) and to have moved in order to attend a specific school (17.7% vs. 21.6%). Parents are generally satisfied with their child’s school (82.2% rated somewhat or very satisfied), but less so than for non-autistic students (90.7%). Of those children who receive letter grades, the number of ASD students getting “mostly A’s” or “mostly B’s” is high (79.6%), but less than the general population (84.1%). Parents of students in middle school or above were asked about their future expectations. The fraction of ASD students whose parents’ expectation were that their child would receive less than a high school diploma is much higher than for the general population (6.3% vs. 0.6%). However, by far the majority of parents expect their autistic student to receive a high school diploma, with most expecting at least some vocational school or college to follow. Most parents in the general population expect that their child would achieve a 4-year or graduate degree (72.7%). While the parental expectations for ASD students to obtain a bachelor or higher degree is much lower (28%), this is still a notable fraction of the autistic population.

Conclusions: Parents report that their ASD students lag behind the general student population in academic performance. Parent report high satisfaction with their schools, but at a lower level than the general population. Many parents of ASD students report high expectations for their ASD students. Services research should consider how to support individuals with ASD with a broad spectrum of abilities and expectations.

Here’s the actual poster:

Imfar poster 2

If you are unfamiliar with a poster presentation, here’s the short version: You take your study and write it up on a 3′ x 4′ piece of paper. You stand in front of the poster and discuss it with the people who are interested.

I was very lucky in that I was right by one of the doors, so a lot of traffic came my way. That traffic included a few people who knew me from my blogging here. One reader came up and said “Hi Sullivan!”. A group from Kennedy Krieger stopped by and told me they wanted to take a picture of the poster to show their colleague–who I was citing in my work. I don’t think they are used to people saying, “You guys from Kennedy Kreiger rock!”, but they got it from me. I spoke with a researcher I know who worked under Ami Klin (formerly of Yale, now at Emery), whom I got to meet there too.

I was scheduled for the 10am time slot on Friday. This means I had to duck out early from Eric Courchesne’s keynote talk. I spoke with him later and he asked me about his talk. I told him it was very good and he responded with the killer question: what did I think of the last 15 minutes? I had to admit that I was standing in front of my poster then and missed his conclusion. To which he responded (with a bit of a mischievous grin, if I may say): you missed the best part! as he disappeared through a door.

I was scheduled for 1 hour. Posters can be a bit tedious when you stand there waiting for someone to talk with. I was lucky in that I went pretty solid for 2 hours.

A poster presenter needs to have the 1 minute “walk through” of the study. Mine was basically this: A lot of work has been focused on the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). This is the study which formed the basis of one of the “autism prevalence is 1%” last year. There didn’t seem to be much focus on the educational survey which I presented, and I was there to make it known that there was this other data source. I didn’t dwell too much on the prevalence (1 in 65) or the fact that the prevalence was basically flat with age (Figure 1). What I found interesting was the fact that there is a very wide range of parental reports of abilities, difficulties and expectations for their kids. Yes, by every measure shown, autistic students are more likely to be in ungraded classrooms, get lower grades, have reports of behavior problems and the like. But a notable fraction are being parent-reported as getting “A’s”. Most parents expect their children to graduate high school (over 90%) and many parents expect some college or even graduate school. Those last questions were only asked of parents of children in middle school and above, so they had some basis to make the predictions.

I pointed out that there is no way to see how realistic the parent’s expectations were (and that there was a far more rigorous study being presented at IMFAR on the transition out of school for autistic students–that of Paul Shattuck’s group in St. Louis–and that expectations exceed reality). The first person to look at my poster noted that 30% of parents of children overall (the general population) were expecting their kids to go to graduate school, which shows that all parents are proud of and optimistic about their children.

There was a wonderful presentation on the poster next to mine by a team from Georgia Tech. I hope to include that team’s work in a later post.

I am very grateful that IMFAR accepted my abstract. I went in with the idea that my poster might be the least interesting study presented. In the end, if I do say so myself, I held my own. Sure, it’s not earth shattering research. But there were interesting points. For me it was a great experience, even if it meant a flashback to my grad school days of standing in front of a poster.

Interviews from IMFAR: Alex Plank brings the conference to the public

18 May

One of the unexpected joys of attending the IMFAR conference this year was meeting Alex Plank of Wrong Planet. I plan on writing more about Alex soon, but for the moment, let me bring you some of the interviews he did. His team is the same one that brought us the press conference. That was no small effort. They were up most of the night getting that out so fast. As you will see, Alex takes videography very seriously. As such, I would recommend playing these full screen or going to YouTube and playing them in a larger format that is afforded by out column size. It’s quality work. I love the way he’s working with various locations in these interviews.

John Robison at Imfar

David Mandell at IMFAR 2011

Clara Lajonchere, VP of Clinical Programs at IMFAR

Peter Bell of Autism Speaks – IMFAR Interview in San Diego

Geraldine Dawson Interview

Parent Reported Status and Expectations for Their Autistic Student Children: An Analysis of the 2007 National Household Education Survey

13 May

I have written in the past that I will be attending IMFAR, the International Meeting For Autism Research. I will be supported by a stakeholder travel grant from the Autism Science Foundation, for which I am very grateful. What I haven’t mentioned before is that I was planning to attend IMFAR even before applying for the stakeholder grant. I’ve been planning on attending since I submitted an abstract: Parent Reported Status and Expectations for Their Autistic Student Children: An Analysis of the 2007 National Household Education Survey.

For those who have read this blog for some time, it will come as no surprise that I have a keen interest in autism research. In my writing I have often analyzed data from public datasets like the California Department of Developmental Services data. A while back there was a lot of attention placed on the National Survey of Children’s Health. The big news was the announcement of an autism prevalence of about 1%, and a notion that these data pointed to a very high “recovery” rate from autism. I took a look at the recovery rate question. I also looked for a what other information we might gather from the survey, including debunking the idea that 80% of parents of autistic kids divorce.

One of the big news stories from last year’s IMFAR was the announcement that autism does not result in a high divorce rate. The team presenting at IMFAR were much more rigorous in their analysis than the report of raw data that I did. But I have to say that when I read the IMFAR abstract I thought, good to see that team make this fact known. I also thought to myself: I’m asking the right questions of the data I am analyzing.

I also know how to give a presentation at a conference, having done so many times in the past. But conferences don’t let people present using a pseudonym. This was somewhat frustrating, as I have been looking at data from the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) and found some very interesting results. Once people took it upon themselves to out me, that was no longer an obstacle, so I submitted an abstract for IMFAR 2011:

Parent Reported Status and Expectations for Their Autistic Student Children: An Analysis of the 2007 National Household Education Survey.
M. J. Carey
Background: National surveys provide a good source of information on autistic populations within the United States. The 2007 National Survey for Child Health was used to estimate autism prevalence (Kogan 2009), as well as to make comparisons of such family factors as the divorce rate (Freedman 2010). A similar survey, the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), is an opportunity to explore comparisons between parent-reported factors involving the lives and education of autistic and non-autistic students.

Objectives:
1. Compare educational placements and perceived educational abilities between children with (a) parent-reported autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and (b) children in the general population.
2. Explore parent expectations for the future of their ASD student.

Methods: Data used for this study were taken from the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES 2007). NHES had 10,682 total respondents, representing students ages 3 to 20 years. 127 parents identified their child as having autism and an additional 37 identified their child as having pervasive developmental disorder. Parent responses for this group (164 total, or about 1 in 65) were compared to those of the parent responses within the general survey population.

Results: 75% of students with parent-reported ASD have an Individualized Education Plan. Parents reported that their ASD students are more likely to have repeated a grade (23% ASD vs. 9% without) or be home schooled (5.5% vs. 2.9%) or be in a program that does not assign letter grades (37% vs. 22%). ASD students were reported as less likely to be in private school (9.6% vs. 13.4%) and to have moved in order to attend a specific school (17.7% vs. 21.6%). Parents are generally satisfied with their child’s school (82.2% rated somewhat or very satisfied), but less so than for non-autistic students (90.7%). Of those children who receive letter grades, the number of ASD students getting “mostly A’s” or “mostly B’s” is high (79.6%), but less than the general population (84.1%). Parents of students in middle school or above were asked about their future expectations. The fraction of ASD students whose parents’ expectation were that their child would receive less than a high school diploma is much higher than for the general population (6.3% vs. 0.6%). However, by far the majority of parents expect their autistic student to receive a high school diploma, with most expecting at least some vocational school or college to follow. Most parents in the general population expect that their child would achieve a 4-year or graduate degree (72.7%). While the parental expectations for ASD students to obtain a bachelor or higher degree is much lower (28%), this is still a notable fraction of the autistic population.

Conclusions: Parents report that their ASD students lag behind the general student population in academic performance. Parent report high satisfaction with their schools, but at a lower level than the general population. Many parents of ASD students report high expectations for their ASD students. Services research should consider how to support individuals with ASD with a broad spectrum of abilities and expectations.

The crude administrative prevalence is quite high at 1 in 65 (1.5%). Notably higher than the 1% value in the last CDC prevalence estimate and the estimate from the NSCH from the same year. As you can see, this is not where I placed the emphasis in this abstract.

What struck me when I looked at these data was the evidence for how broad the spectrum is. Most students are on an IEP. Students with parent-reported autism are in non-graded environments more, and are not getting as high grades. But, there are also a large fraction whose grades are high and there is a small, but notable, group whose parents have expectations of college and beyond.

One major question is how realistic are these parent expectations? How well do these students really do on transition out of school? Another presentation at IMFAR looks into that. This is by Prof. Shattuck’s group at Washington University at St. Louis. To be very clear, I had nothing to do with this study and didn’t even know it was in the works. Prof. Shattuck’s work is far more rigorous than the abstract I submitted, but I’m encouraged to be asking good questions at least. Here is his abstract:

110.096 75 The Role of Parental Expectations In Predicting Post-High School Outcomes for Youth with ASD. J. L. Taylor*1 and P. Shattuck2, (1)Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, (2)Washington University

Background: There is considerable variability in post-high school outcomes of young adults with ASD. Underemployment is common, and many young adults continuing living with their parents or in supported settings after leaving high school. Research examining predictors of independence among adults with ASD has focused on characteristics of the adult that are difficult to change, such as early language or IQ. The present study focused on one malleable factor that is related to adult outcomes in typically developing individuals: parental expectations.

Objectives: This study had two objectives: 1) to describe parents’ expectations for the post-high school educational, occupational, and residential outcomes of their son or daughter with ASD; and 2) to determine the correspondence between parental expectations and outcomes.

Methods: This study used data from waves 1 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative, 10-year longitudinal survey of adolescents in special education. Participants for this study included 390 parents whose son or daughter had received a diagnosis of ASD through the school system and had exited high school by wave 4.
Parental expectations were assessed at wave 1, while youth were still in high school, with the following questions: “How likely do you think it is that (youth) will:” 1.) “graduate from a 4-year college;” 2.) “eventually will get a paid job;” 3.) “eventually live away from home on (his/her) own without supervision.” The son or daughter’s educational activities, current living arrangement, and work status were measured at wave 4. Severity of impairment (conversational ability, social communication, mental skills) was statistically controlled in all analyses.

Results: One-quarter (27%) of parents expected that their son or daughter would graduate from a 4-year college, 88% expected that their son or daughter would work for pay, and one-half expected that he or she would live outside the home without supports. Family income was not independently related to parents’ expectations that their son or daughter would attain a 4-year degree or live outside of the home without supports. Families with higher incomes were more likely to expect that their son or daughter would work for pay, B=.08, p.10. Parental expectations did, however, predict the likelihood that youth would be working for pay, OR=6.05, p<.01.

Conclusions: For many parents of youth with ASD, expectations for their son or daughter’s post-high school living arrangements and education may not be realized. Expectations for paid employment, however, may increase the likelihood of post-high school employment.

Again, for emphasis: “Only 39% of youth whose parents said they “definitely would” graduate from a 4-year college were currently enrolled or had graduated; 45% of youth whose parents said the “definitely would” live away from home independently were currently doing so”.

The question is: how can we achieve the goal where more autistics make the transition from school to adulthood and employment or college? I don’t expect all to make that transition, but I feel strongly that we can do a lot better as a society than we are now.

note–I originally posted this last month when the Abstracts for IMFAR 2011 were first put online. Unfortunately, they were online by mistake. There was an embargo still in place. I pull the article then and am re posting it now that the embargo is lifted. Friday at 9am, I will be standing in front of the poster.

Video of IMFAR Press Conference (with thank to WrongPlanet)

13 May

Alex Plank is at IMFAR with a video team and they taped the press conference. Mr. Plank runs the Wrong Planet website (where you can see this and many other great videos).

The press conference was just over 1 hour. You can skip around to find parts that may interest you.

Here is a rundown of the press conference, and the slides:

Introduction 1: Dana Marnane of Autism Speaks
Introduction 2: David Amaral of U.C. Davis
Panelist 1: Antonio Hardan of Stanford slides
Panelist 2: Irva Hertz-Picciotto of U.C. Davis (slides)
Panelist 3: David Mandell of U. Penn slides and more slides
Panelist 4: Eric Courchesne of U.C. San Diego. (slides)

Blogging IMFAR

12 May

I’m currently attending IMFAR. I’m taking notes and hope to get posts out quickly. I’d strongly recommend following Shannon Rosa. She’s tweeting and live blogging the conference. She’s on twitter and The Thinking Person’s Guide to Autism.

So what do parents really think causes autism?

12 May

According to the MIND institute, presenting at IMFAR:

The two most common causes of autism cited among all parents was an environmental cause (51%) and/or a genetic cause (51%). Vaccines (22%) were the third most commonly believed etiological factor, followed by 20% of parents who did not know or have a guess as to what may cause autism.

This is an interesting set of results to me. I’m frequently told that the overwhelming majority of parents believe vaccines cause autism. Turns out less than a quarter do.

Also of interest was the following statement:

Vaccines are commonly cited as a cause by parents in all ethnic groups despite a clear lack of scientific evidence demonstrating a relationship between autism and either the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, or thimerosal containing vaccines

Wasn’t that long ago that autism anti-vaxxer supermo Rick Rollens was basically in charge of MIND. How times have changed.

IMFAR 2011: the press conference (part 1)

11 May

The International Meeting for Autism Research starts tomorrow. There are some preliminary sessions ongoing today, including the press conference.

For the press conference, a small group of researchers were singled out and gave advance summaries of their work. David Amaral of U.C. Davis is the president of INSAR (the International Society for Autism Research) and hosted the press conference.

Eric Courchesne, Antonio Hardan, David Mandell, and Irva Hertz-Picciotto gave presentations and answered questions from the panel. Marsha Mailick Seltzer was also listed in the press book and was available, but did not give a presentation.

Amaral gave an introduction. This is the 10th IMFAR, and they returned to San Diego, where the first conference was held. The fist conference had 250 attendees. This one will have about 2,000. He stressed the focus on research into causes and treatment, the wide range of studies including environmental causation, and the strong passion and excitement of the researchers.

Eric Courchesne discussed some very exciting work his team is presenting. The first abstract highlighted was: Abnormally Accelerated Development of Higher-Order Long-Distance Cerebral Tracts In ASD Infants and Toddlers. They are looking ath the neural underpinnings of autism. They studied 39 ASD and 23 non-ASD children, aged 12-40 months through MRI. This is the largest diffusion tensor MRI study in autism so far. They were able to identify children so young due to the recent methodologies put out in Pediatrics.

They found a number of interesting results. They looked at specific bundles of of nerves involved in long-range connectivity within the brain. Connectivity between the temperal lobe and limbic system (e.g. amygdala) are different amongst autistics from very early on. They looked at a measure called “fractional anisotropy”, or FA. For young autistics, FA is high. FA grows with time (it is a measure of maturity), but it grows slower than for non ASD kids. Result–FA is high for young (<30 month old) children, but low for older autistics. This is consistent with earlier work showing lower maturity (FA) for older autistics.

During questions, there was much dicussion of other aspects of Dr. Courchesne's research. There is a 2x increase in brain cells in the frontal cortex in very young autistics. This points to causation, at least for a large group, in very early events. There is also evidence from post mortem studies giving genetic evidence of dysregulation of functions that regularte cell number, cell migration, patternng of the brain, left/right brain symmetry and other factors of the brain. Not only are there differences in genetic expression and genetic pathways, but they are age dependent.

This brings up an important point for future research efforts. Researchers need to be aware that so many factors could be age dependent. Also, this gives some insight into possible developmental trajectories that the brain may undergoe. It was posited that the

The idea that FA starts out higher is new and presents a possible mechanism for different brain development in autistics. It was posited that the early structure of the autistic brain could result in the different developmental path.

On a related topic in the questions, I believe it was from David Amaral, it was noted that "precocious" brain growth is associated with regression. While it is known that large head diameters are common amongst autistics, changes in brain growth are observable as early in 4-6 months of age, well before the regression occurs.

And that's just the first person in the panel! I will get to the rest of the press conference shortly.

Preliminary program for IMFAR

20 Apr

IMFAR, the International Meeting For Autism Research will be held next month (May 12-14). The full scientific program is not up yet (with all the details about who is talking and when), but the preliminary program is online. You can see what sessions are focusing on and see who the keynote speakers are.

Here are some sessions which caught my eye:

Characterizing Cognition in Nonverbal Individuals with Autism: Innocation Assessment and Treatment (an invited symposium–i.e. the conference felt this was an important topic and specifically invited speakers to present their research)

Sex Differences and Females with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Interventions: Behavioral CAM and Psychopharmacology Treatments

In addition, a number of sessions have full or partial focus on adults:

Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Challenges for Epidemiological and Outcome Research (another invited symposium)

Epidemiology: ASD Prevalence, Trends, and Adults with ASD

a poster session on Adults with Autism

Structural and Functional Brain Imaging in Older Children, Adolescents and Adults with ASD

If you missed it, let me draw your attention: there is a session that includes CAM–Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Autism Science Foundation announces IMFAR stakeholder travel grant recipients

10 Mar

The Autism Science Foundation has announced the recipients of this year’s stakeholder travel grants for IMFAR.

The press release is below:

AUTISM SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANNOUNCES
IMFAR STAKEHOLDER TRAVEL GRANT RECIPIENTS

IMFAR Stakeholder Travel Awards will Support Parents, Individuals with Autism, Teachers & Students

(March 10, 2011—New York, NY)–The Autism Science Foundation, a not for profit organization dedicated to supporting and funding autism research, today announced the recipients of its IMFAR Stakeholder Travel grants. ASF will make 11 awards of up to $1000 to be used to cover expenses related to attending the International Meeting for Autism Research in San Diego in May 2011. After the conference, grant recipients will be expected to share what they’ve learned with families in their local communities and/or online.

This year’s recipients are:

Geraldine Bliss–Parent
Matthew Carey–Parent
Shannon Des Roches Rosa–Parent
Mark Fornefeld–Self Identified Individual with Autism
Abby Hare–Graduate Student
Erin Lopes–Parent
Molly McGrath–Self Identified Individual with Autism/MIT Media Lab
Brianna Miller–Special Ed Teacher, Newark Public Schools
Sharman Ober-Reynolds–Parent/Senior Research Coordinator, SARRC
Megan O’Boyle –Parent
Max Rolison–Undergraduate Student

IMFAR is an annual scientific meeting, convened each spring, to promote exchange and dissemination of the latest scientific findings in autism research and to stimulate research progress in understanding the nature, causes, and treatments for autism spectrum disorders. IMFAR is the annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research (INSAR).

“We are thrilled to be able to give back directly to the autism community in a research-focused way”, said Alison Singer, President of the Autism Science Foundation. “We are confident that the award recipients will all do a great job of bringing critical new research information to their communities, improving the speed with which the latest data are shared with the broader autism community.”

The Autism Science Foundation is a 501(c)(3) public charity launched in 2009 whose mission is to support autism research by providing funding to those who conduct, facilitate, publicize and disseminate autism research. ASF also provides information about autism to the general public and serves to increase awareness of autism spectrum disorders and the needs of individuals and families affected by autism.

The International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) is a scientific and professional organization devoted to advancing knowledge about autism spectrum disorders. INSAR was created in 2001. The society runs the annual scientific meeting – the International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) and publishes the research journal “Autism Research”.

Contact Info:

Julie Martin
Events and Media Manager
Autism Science Foundation
jmartin@autismsciencefoundation.org
419 Lafayette Street, 2nd floor
New York, NY 10003